Concrete is a composite material made up of three basic components being water, cement and aggregate in the form of sand, rock, stone or gravel. Due to many uncontrollable factors such as harsh environmental conditions, design constraints, poor construction practices and material limitations, deterioration known as concrete cancer can occur over time.
This is due to moisture entering the pores of the concrete, creating rust of internal steel reinforcement. This results in many structural, functional and aesthetic problems as well as impacting on the integrity of surrounding infrastructure.
Signs and symptoms of concrete that have been implicated include, but is not limited to;
Deep widespread cracks due to settlement and movement from the earth
Spalling as a result of rust to steel reinforcement -Sunken slabs due to poor preparation
Scaling due to frost or freezing conditions at the time of laying or thereafter
Deterioration due to chemical attacks
Thermal cracking as a result of expansion and contraction